How forests grow

Forests are dynamic ecosystems—they’re always growing and changing.  Patterns of forest succession are relatively predictable within given site conditions, but highly variable from site to site.  For instance, in the sub-boreal forests of northeastern Minnesota, widespread aspen and birch forests are being invaded by native spruce and fir trees.  Over time as the short-lived aspens and birches die, shade-tolerant conifers […]

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